province, Which is also called " Zanjan Plain", is
located in central part of north-west of Iran. Zanjan,
Abhar,and Khodabandeh compose the townships of this
The population of this province in November 1996
was900,000 out of which 47.62% were urban dwellers and
52.37% resided in rural areas and remaining were
non-resident . The sex ratio of the population is
Zanjan province is composed of two regions,
mountainous and plain. Having some high summits, the
mountainous areas encompass the northern regions of
Zanjan township and the remaining parts of the
province are a plain region.
There is a vast and relatively level alluvium plain in
southern part of Zanjan which bounds by Soltanieh
heights at the north and Ghaydar heights at the south.
Several rivers flow in the province of which the most
important one is "Ghezal Ozan" river having a high
quantity of water.
Influencing by mountainous areas and being under
indirect impacts of humid west-northern air currents.
Zanjan province enjoys two different climates
Mountainous climate with snowy cold winters and mild
summers, and warm and semi-humid climate in upper
Tarom region having warm summers and mild winters with
considerable annual precipitation as well as suitable
humidity. Rainfall rate in spring and summer is more
than other seasons . The duration of dry months in the
province is relatively long. Two dominant and
important wind currents of the province are Sormeh and
Garm (Warm) Summer and spring are the most suitable
times for spending of leisure time in this province.
The nature, rivers, mineral water springs and climate
totally have their own freshness and beauty for each
Zanjan province is one of the historical regions of
Iran. The antiquity of the province can be divided
into four historic periods:
Pre-historic ago ( from 7th millennium BC.till early
3rd millennium BC.): The most ancient and recognized
historical vestiges belonging to pre-historic age goes
to "Bardostin". culture which are known by small tools
having about 30,000 years of antiquity .
Historic settlements in Eajrood region of Zanjan in
3rd and 2nd millennium BC. indicates flourishing and
sustainability of Iran’s civilization in this region.
Evaluation of black engravings on discovered
earthenware of buff color shows the linkage and
continuity of Damghan Hesar hill, Kashan Sialk hill,
and Eajrood of Zanjan civilizations.
New historic age ( late 2nd millennium BC. to early
7th century AD.): The most distinct vestiges of this
period is a kind of simple gray earthenware which
conforms to simultaneity of Aryan tribes migration to
this region. Teapot shape earthenware with relatively
long hose were found in all tombs of this age which
could be attributed to funeral ceremonies. There have
not been a determinate government system in the region
till early first millennium BC. Even Othartoui
government could not expand its dominance over this
region due to remoteness of it. According to Assyrians
documents, this region was named Andya in 9th century
BC. and its dwellers have probably communicated with
Lulubi and Gouti tribes who resided in slopes of
Zagross mountain range. There is ambiguity about the
history of the region from 7th century BC. to late
millennium BC. i.e. whole Achaemenian period. The
discovered coins "Derik" and "Riton" in Khodabendeh
are the vestiges of Achaemenian period. The valleys of
Zanjan Rood and Ghezel Ozan were more thriving in
parthians and Sassanians times. Amongst the most
important remains of this period Tashvir fire- temples
can be pointed out.
Islamic period (from 7th to 19th century AC.):This
period begins with conquest of Iran in the time of
Osman caliphate. Existing texts and evidences show
that this region was very thriving from economic,
cultural and artistic points of view during the whole
Islamic period . One of the reasons for selecting
Sultanieh as capital by Mongol Ilkhanan was economic
briskness of the region in 7th and 8th centuries AH.
After the decline of Ilkhani government by Sarbedaran
movement in 9th century AH. Zanjan was attacked by
Taymour the lame and was damaged badly.
The region was relatively thriving from economic and
cultural points of view in Safavid and Ghajar time
specially during the reign of Shah Tahmasb and Agha
The major historical, cultural, and tourism
characteristics of the province are as follows: